Gliquidone Mechanism of action on insulin secretion In the basal state, the plasma membrane of the β cell is hyperpolarized, and the rate of insulin secretion from the cell is low. When glucose is available, it enters the cell via GLUT2 transporters in the plasma membrane and is metabolized to generate intracellular ATP . ATP binds to and inhibits the plasma membrane K+/ATP channel. Inhibition of the K+/ATP channel decreases plasma membrane K+ conductance; the resulting depolarization of the membrane activates voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and thereby stimulates an influx of Ca2+ . Ca2+ mediates fusion of insulin-containing secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, leading to insulin secretion.
Salicylates are derivatives of salicylic acid that occur naturally in plants and serve as a natural immune hormone and preservative , protecting the plants against diseases , insects , fungi , and harmful bacteria . [ citation needed ] Salicylates can also be found in many medications , perfumes and preservatives. [ citation needed ] Both natural and synthetic salicylates can cause health problems in anyone when consumed in large doses, [ citation needed ] but for those who exhibit salicylate sensitivity (also known as salicylate intolerance ), even small doses of salicylate can cause adverse reactions.
Acetazolamide is a reversible inhibitor of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme that results in reduction of hydrogen ion secretion at the renal tubule and an increased renal excretion of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and water. It can be used as a diuretic or to treat glaucoma as it prevents excessive build up of aqueous humor. It also inhibits carbonic anhydrase in the central nervous system to minimize abnormal and excessive discharge from CNS neurons. Acetazolamide can be administered to patients with a metabolic alkalosis to promote retention of hydrogen ions at the level of the renal tubule.